European ADULT IMMUNISATION HUB

What Is Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD)?

See: Adult vaccination – a key component of healthy ageing

What Is Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD)

  • An acute and potentially life-threatening disease caused by different strains of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumonia
  • Invasive infection can lead to septicaemia (blood poisoning), pneumonia and meningitis (potentially life-threatening inflammation of the meninges)

Globally, an estimated 1.6 million people die of IPD annually [ECDC 2013]. Groups at high risk of contracting IPD include [ECDC 2013]:

  • Children (1 million deaths annually)
  • Immunocompromised people (e.g. patients with chronic renal failure)
  • Older people (>65 years of age)
  • Diagnosis and treatment can be difficult:
  • Diagnosis must be confirmed by laboratoryanalysis of blood, cerebrospinal fluid, pleural fluid, or peritoneal fluid [Werno 2008]
    • Multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more antibiotic classes) can occur [ECDC 2013]

Epidemiology [Ecdc 2013]

2006–10 (Figure 2)

  • The rate of confirmed cases in Europe remained unchanged from 2006 to 2009
  • More cases were reported in 2010 than in 2009 (21,565 compared to 14,273, respectively), likely due to improved surveillance and reporting systems in some countries

Regional differences in 2010

  • The highest rates were reported by Belgium and the Nordic countries
  • Lower rates were reported by Lithuania and The Netherlands
  • In England and Wales, effective paediatricvaccination programmes have led to significant decreases in IPD cases (including adults through herd protection), and in pneumococcal pneumonia and acute otitis media in children [Miller 2011]

Age

  • Rates were higher among children aged <5 years and adults aged >65 years (9.6 and 14.4 cases per 100,000, respectively) (Figure 3)
  • The rate increased in older people, from 9.84 in 2009 to 14.4 in 2010

Mortality [Who Detailed European Mortality database]

  • Mortality due to Streptococcus pneumoniaeinfection in Europe is low, with an average rate of 0.152 per 100,000 (averaged over countries and years)
  • In 2009, rates were highest in Estonia, Finland and France (0.40–0.45 per 100,000)

Summary: Invasive Pneumococcal Disease

  • An acute and potentially life-threatening disease caused by different strains of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumonia
  • Invasive infection can lead to septicaemia (blood poisoning), pneumonia and meningitis (potentially life-threatening inflammation of the meninges)